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D are predominantly associated with normal physiological changes that occur during this time. Much of the literature reports on one or two specific symptoms but does not examine the range of potential symptoms possible during this time [1,2]. The need for such an instrument became apparent when designing our pregnancy intervention study [3]. Lifestyle and other interventions during pregnancy have
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Le included women in contact with the hospitals due to reproductive health problems or their accompanied women. Of the 840 women recruited, 800 (95.2 ) answered the questionnaire and 40 (4.8 ) refused to answer. Characteristics of these 800 participants are shown in Table 1.MeasuresA modified version of the questionnaire designed for the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic viole
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Of Technology, Brisbane, Australia Full list of author information is available at the end of the articleway of assessing the impact of pregnancy interventions on the wide range of pregnancy symptoms that women experience. Therefore, in this study we outline our approach to the development and testing of a valid and robust tool to assess pregnancy symptoms. A review of the available literature ide
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Foxcroft et al. BMC PregnancyT at www.biomedcentral.com/submitFoxcroft et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2013, 13:3 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2393/13/RESEARCH ARTICLEOpen AccessDevelopment and validation of a pregnancy symptoms inventoryKatie F Foxcroft1, Leonie K Callaway2, Nuala M Byrne3* and Joan WebsterAbstractBackground: Physical symptoms are common in pregnancy and are
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Four "often" reported symptoms were urinary frequency (52.2 ), tiredness (45.5 ), poor sleep (27.5 ) and back pain (19.5 ). Among the women surveyed, 16.2 claimed to sometimes or often be incontinent. Referrals to the incontinence nurse increased > 8 fold during the study period. Conclusions: The PSI provides a comprehensive inventory of pregnancy related symptoms, with a mechanism for assessing
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And. 2UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research and National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), P.O. Box 3033501, Tampere, Finland. 3 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, National Institute for Health Development, Hiiu 42, 11619, Tallinn, Estonia. Received: 15 February 2012 Accepted: 17 December 2012 Published: 21 December 2012 References 1. Hemminki E, Topo P, Kangas I: Experience
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And. 2UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research and National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), P.O. Box 3033501, Tampere, Finland. 3 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, National Institute for Health Development, Hiiu 42, 11619, Tallinn, Estonia. Received: 15 February 2012 Accepted: 17 December 2012 Published: 21 December 2012 References 1. Hemminki E, Topo P, Kangas I: Experience
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Is considerably higher than the rates reportedTable 2 Prevalence of lifetime and past year emotional abuse by intimate partner against womenType of violence No. Lifetime (overall) Insult Scaring/intimidation Humiliation Threatening to remarry Threatening to harm Threatening to divorce Past year (overall) Insult Scaring/intimidation Humiliation Threatening to remarry Threatening to harm Threatening

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