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Cell lines from primary alveolar macrophages from MS-/- mice. Results: We used in vitro infection of the primary AMs with the J2 retrovirus carrying the v-raf and v-myc oncogenes. Following initial isolation in media supplemented with murine macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), we subcloned three AM cell lines, designated ZK-1, ZK-2 and ZK-6. These cell lines grow well in RPMI-1640-10 FB
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Allele primers, amplifies a 434 bp DNA fragment from SRA-deficient ZK1, ZK2 and ZK6 cells. With primers for MARCO wild-type allele, amplifies a 500 bp DNA fragment from WT mice; with primers for MARCO mutant allele, amplifies a 850 bp DNA fragment from ZK cells. ZK1, ZK2 and ZK6 clones exhibited both MARCO and SRA-I/II-deficient. PCR products, ca.10 l/each was resolved on a 1.5 agarose gel by gel
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Les 1, 2). The sequences clustered with different clades and circulating recombinant forms distributed throughout the phylogenetic trees (Table 2), consistent with the breadth of HIV-1 diversity previously described in Cameroon. CRF02_AG-like viruses dominated the clade distribution, infecting 50 of the 46 participants for which both genes were sequenced (Figure 2). Participants infected with vir
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Onfim I, Camacho RJ, Vandamme AM, Lemey P: Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 CRF02_AG clade in Cameroon. Infect Genet Evol 2012, 12:453?60. 20. Zhang M, Foley B, Schultz AK, Macke JP, Bulla I, Stanke M, Morgenstern B, Korber B, Leitner T: The role of recombination in the emergence of a complex and dynamic HIV epidemic. Retrovirology 2010, 7:25. 21. Carr JK, Salminen MO, Albert J, Sanders-Buell E, Gotte D
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Type 1: subtype G is a circulating recombinant form. J Virol 2007, 81:8543?551.doi:10.1186/1743-422X-10-29 Cite this article as: Tongo et al.: Characterization of HIV-1 gag and nef in Cameroon: further evidence of extreme diversity at the origin of the HIV-1 group M epidemic. Virology Journal 2013 10:29.Submit your next manuscript to BioMed Central and take full advantage of:?Convenient online sub
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Further define MARCO and SR-AI/II function, and may also be useful to identify other novel scavenger-type macrophage receptors and for additional studies of particle toxicology.BackgroundThe pulmonary alveolar macrophage (AM) plays an important role in defense of the lung [1-5]. Class A scavenger receptors (SRA) primarily expressed on the macro-phage (M? surface are critical for binding, uptake, a
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D. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.AbstractBackground: Alveolar macrophages (AM) avidly bind and ingest unopsonized inhaled particles and bacteria through class

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